DHS most directly impacts the real estate industry through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA is responsible for coordinating the federal response to floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural or man-made disasters, as well as providing disaster assistance to States, communities and individuals. FEMA also administers the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and programs that provide assistance for mitigating future damages from natural hazards. The NFIP also creates the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). The accuracy and timeliness of these maps is critical for the transaction of properties located in, or adjacent to, a floodplain.